EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.

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INTRODUCTION:  

programming language is a vocabulary and set of rules for instructing a computer or computing device to perform any tasks. 

 Let’s say you have a Tv-set, without a programming language you will not be able to choose which channel you want to watch; this is because computer’s language or Machine language is different from ours, It’s been approximately 182yrs since programming language started evolving to be where they are today. The first programming language was developed by Ada Lovelace in the year 1842.

She developed a scheme for computing Bernoulli Numbers on the first computer created by Charles Babbage in 1822. Her computing scheme is seen as the first programming language ever written; but this existed only on paper, It takes nearly 70 more years to arrive at the next major development

THE MIDDLE CENTURY

  In 1952 The first compiled programming language was the developed by Alick Glennie for the Mark 1 computer at the University of Manchester in the U.K.

Alick Glennie

In 1953 John Backus created the programming language FORTRAN, which stands for Formula Translation, this language helped scientists solve complex mathematical, and statistical problems. It is still used today.  Which year to assign to it is not altogether clear.

In 1958, a committee created ALGOL, which stands for Algorithmic Language. While the language is not familiar to us today, it is considered a foundation for ones that are, such as C, Java, and Pascal. 

In 1959 programming language based on the design work of Grace Hopper emerged. COBOL, which stands for common business-oriented language, was “created as part of a US Department of Defense effort to create a portable programming language for data processing.” At the time, they thought it would only be used as a temporary measure, but the language proved to have amazing endurance.

Grace Hopper

While no one seems to study COBOL anymore, it is still in use to maintain some legacy infrastructure on mainframe computers.

1964 brought about BASIC, which stands for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.was developed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz at Dartmouth College. The goal was to enable students without strong technical skills to make use of computers. BASIC was adapted for use in Microsoft computers, bringing the language to students of the next generation.

John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz .

GETTING TO C ERA

In 1972, Dennis Ritchie at Bell Lab developed the language called C, which is considered the first high-level language (In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction or its made such that developers can easily interact with). This is  “the most relevant programming language in the history of computer science .”   That’s because not only is it still in use today, but it also serves as the foundation for other programming languages, including C++ and C#, JavaScript, Java, and Python.

Dennis Ritchie

In 1983 C++ an extension of the C language and was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup, because of the usefulness C programming language, other extensions were developed, one of them is C# which is used by big companies today such as Microsoft.

Bjarne Stroustrup

OTHER FAMILIAR LANGUAGES FROM THE LAST DECADE OF THE 20TH CENTURY.

Everyone currently up on computer science now is familiar with Python, which ranks among the top three languages for most lists, largely due to its adaption to data science projects. GUIDO VAN ROSSUM developed Python in 1991 and named it for the British comedy group Monty Python.

GUIDO VAN ROSSUM

In 1991, a small group of Sun engineers called the “Green Team” believed that the next wave in computing was the union of digital consumer devices and computers. Led by James Gosling, the team worked around the clock and created the programming language that would revolutionize our world – Java.

Created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994 is PHP. PHP is a general-purpose programming language originally designed for web development, PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism or   Hypertext Preprocessor.  Most companies today use PHP as their main language, example are Facebook, Yahoo, and Twitter.

Rasmus Lerdorf 

Here’s a fun fact: Brendan Eich created JavaScript in just 10 days in 1995. It is the language of choice for adding interactive features to a web page, and it is found in most browsers and sites today.

Brendan Eich

The first version of Ruby was released in the fall of 1995. Ruby is used to building websites and mobile apps. Matz created an English homepage for Ruby in 1998. Ruby later paired with Rails, its add-on framework that allows rapid development, requiring less coding to make it easier to build web apps.

IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Go was a language that emerged at Google and then became an open-source project in November 2009. It was intended to improve the working environment for programmers so they could write, read, and maintain large software systems more efficiently.

 In 2014 Apple invented Swift, which makes it a recent addition to computer language. In the words of the parent company: “Swift is a powerful and intuitive programming language for macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS and beyond. Writing Swift code is interactive and fun, the syntax is concise yet expressive, and Swift includes modern features developers love.”

Today we have hundreds of programming language in computer science with some with some as High level language, for example; Python, Visual Basic, Delphi, Perl, PHP, ECMAScript, Ruby, C#, Java just to name a few.

Equally, we have low-level language as; ActionScriptAdaC#Common LispCrystalCUDADDelphiFortranGraphical G Programming LanguageHalideHaskellJava bytecodeJuliaKotlinLuaObjective-COpenGL Shading Language, Pony, PythonRRuby RustScala Swift, and Xojo.

To conclude, I want to ask you this question; Which languages will be in use in the future?

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